Students in a UWE Bristol library

Chicago (notes and bibliography)

Quick guide to using the Chicago (notes and bibliography) referencing style. For students taking History degrees only.

New to Chicago referencing?

Read the introduction and general principles.

What are you trying to reference?

Blackboard (lecturers' notes)

Lecturers' notes are referenced in the same way as unpublished material.

The reader needs to know: author, "title of lecture", lecture notes, course, institution, date of lecture.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    1. Tim Parsons, "How to write good references" (Lecture notes, MA Drama, University of the West of England, October 2010).
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    5. Parsons, "Write good references."
  • Bibliographic entry
    Parsons, Tim. "How to write good references." Lecture notes, MA Drama, University of the West of England, October 2010.

Blogs

The reader needs to know: author, "entry title," blog title, date of entry, date of access (if necessary), URL.

Note: Date of access is not required by the Chicago standard unless it is impossible to determine the date of publication or revision.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    2. Chris Hutt, comment on "Residents' Parking - A Way Forward?," Green Bristol Blog, February 22, 2010, http://greenbristolblog.blogspot.com/2010/02/residents-parking-way-forward.html.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    8. Hutt, "Residents' Parking."
  • Bibliographic entry
    Hutt, Chris, comment on "Residents' Parking - A Way Forward?" Green Bristol Blog. February 22, 2010. http://greenbristolblog.blogspot.com/2010/02/residents-parking-way-forward.html.

Books

Books with one author

The reader needs to know:  author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page number.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    12. T.H. Breen, How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), 65.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    14. Breen, How Consumer Politics, 68.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Breen, T. H. How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Books with two or three authors

The reader needs to know: authors, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page number.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    6. Frank Lentricchia and Thomas McLaughlin, Critical Terms for Literary Study (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1990), 104-7.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    9. Lentricchia, Critical Terms, 105.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Lentricchia, Frank, and Thomas McLaughlin. Critical Terms for Literary Study. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Books with four or more authors

  • In the note list the first author followed by et al.
  • In the bibliography list all the authors

The reader needs to know: authors, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page number.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    5. Susan Hattingh et al., Community Nursing: A South African Manual (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 2012), 243.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    7. Hattingh et al., Community Nursing, 256.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Hattingh, Susan, Marie Dreyer, Steven Roos, Doriccah Peu. Community Nursing: A South African Manual. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Reference books (research works such as dictionaries, encyclopedias and indexes)

It is not usually necessary to give full publication details if the dictionary or encyclopedia is well known, or to put it in your bibliography. However, you should give such details as edition and year of publication in order to identity the particular work you have consulted.

If you are citing an alphabetically arranged work, cite the item preceded by "s.v." ("sub verdo," or under the word).

If you are citing a particular authored entry within a dictionary or encyclopedia, give basic details of author and title at the beginning of the reference.

The reader needs to know: entry author, "entry title," title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, date entry last modified or date accessed (if online), URL (if online).

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    11. Basque English Dictionary (Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1989).
    12. Wikipedia, s.v. "Pythagoras," last modified May 7, 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pythagoras.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    16. Basque English Dictionary.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Basque English Dictionary. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1989.

Electronic books

For electronic books, the publisher may be the name of a repository. For example, the Oxford Text Archive or the Electronic Text Centre at the University of Virginia.

The reader needs to know: author, title, place of publication, publisher, year of publication, page number, URL, DOI or e-book format (the DOI is preferred to the URL).

Examples:

  • Notes (without bibliography)
    1. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders' Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 10, http://press-pubs.unchicago.edu/founders/.
    2. Douglas Adams, Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (London: Heinemann, 1991), chap. 10, Kindle edition.
  • Notes (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    11. Kurland, Founders' Constitution.
    12. Adams, Hitchhiker's Guide, 145.
  • Bibliographic entries
    Kurland, Philip and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders' Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.unchicago.edu/founders/.
    Adams, Douglas. Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. London: Heinemann, 1991. Kindle edition.

Books, reprint editions

The reader needs to know: authors, title, original place of publication, original publisher, original date of publication, author of reprint editions, reprint place of publication, reprint publisher, reprint date of publication, page number.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    1. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby (New York: Scribner, 1925), reprinted with preface and notes by Matthew J. Bruccoli (New York: Collier Books, 1992), 87.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    1. Fitzgerald, Great Gatsby, 87.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Scribner, 1925. Reprinted with preface and notes by Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York: Collier Books, 1992. Page references are to the 1992 edition.

Books, translations

The reader needs to know: author, title, who did the translation, place of publication, publisher, year of publication, page number.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    1. Jorge Luis Borges, Collected fictions, trans. Andrew Hurley (London: Allen Lane, 1999), 75.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    1. Borges, Collected fictions, 80.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Borges, Jorge Luis. Collected fictions. Translated by Andrew Hurley. London: Allen Lane, 1999.

CD/DVD-ROMs

The reader needs to know: author (unless a reference work), title, edition, place of publication, publisher, year of publication, format (eg CD-ROM).

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    1. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), CD-ROM.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    1. Oxford English Dictionary.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. CD-ROM.

Chapters/contributions in books

The reader needs to know: chapter author, "chapter title," in book title, editors, place of publication, publisher, year of publication, page numbers.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    1. Anne Carr and Douglas J. Shuurman, "Religion and Feminism: A Reformist Christian Analysis," in Religion, Feminism, and the Family, eds. Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuwen (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996), 11-32.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    1. Carr, "Religion and Feminism," 33-34.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Carr, Anne, and Douglas J. Shuurman. "Religion and Feminism: A Reformist Christian Analysis," In Religion, Feminism, and the Family, edited by Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuwen, 11-34. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.

Conference paper

For published conference proceedings, follow the instructions for chapters/contributions in books.

If referring directly to a conference address that you attended, or an unpublished conference paper, reference as follows...

The reader needs to know: author, "address/paper title," paper presented at conference title, conference location, conference date. 

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    3. Brian Doyle, "Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59" (paper presented at the Annual International Meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19-22, 2002).
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    5. Doyle, "Howling Like Dogs."
  • Bibliographic entry
    Doyle, Brian. "Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59." Paper presented at the Annual International Meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19-22, 2002.

Films or one-off TV programmes on VHS or DVD

The reader needs to know: title, director, year of release, place of publication, publisher, year of publication, format (eg DVD).

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    1. High Fidelity, directed by Stephen Frears (2000; Los Angeles, CA: Walt Disney Video, 2001), DVD. 
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    3. High Fidelity, Frears.
  • Bibliographic entry
    High Fidelity. Directed by Stephen Frears. 2000. Los Angeles, CA: Walt Disney Video, 2001. DVD. 

Images and illustrations

The illustration should be given an accompanying figure number.

If the image is taken from another book or manuscript the exact source should be credited with acknowledgement of both the artist and the author or editor within which the image has been reproduced.

The reader needs to know: author, "title," year, format, size, author of citing work, title of citing work, place of publication/display, publisher, year of publication, page number.

Examples:

  • Citation within your text, if image included

    Fig.2., James Sharples, "The Forge," 1865-6.
    The Forge - Chicago referencing example
    Source: Tim Barringer, Men at Work: Art and Labour in Victorian Britain (Yale University Press: New Haven and London, 2005), 143.
  • Note (without bibliography)
    2. James Sharples, "The Forge," 1865-6, oil on canvas, 100cm x 75cm, in Tim Barringer, Men at Work: Art and Labour in Victorian Britain (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2005), 143.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    4. Sharples, "The Forge."
  • Bibliographic entry
    Sharples, J. "The Forge," 1865-6, oil on canvas, 100cm x 75cm, Sheffield City Art Gallery, Sheffield.

Journal articles

Some journal articles are published in print only, some in print and online (of which some are exact copies and some will appear in a different format), and some online only. In all cases, the version you cite should be the version that you have seen.

Print journal article

The reader needs to know: author, "title of article," title of journal volume number, issue number, date of publication, page numbers.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    7. Ann Grodzins Gold, "Grains Of Truth: Shifting Hierarchies of Food and Grace in Three Rajasthani Tales," History of Religions 38, no. 2 (1998): 155.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    9. Gold, "Grains of truth," 158.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Gold, Ann Grodzins. "Grains Of Truth: Shifting Hierarchies of Food and Grace in Three Rajasthani Tales." History of Religions 38, no. 2  (1998): 150-71.

Electronic journal articles

The reader needs to know: author, "title of article," title of journal, volume number, issue number, date of publication, page numbers, date of access (if requested), DOI number or URL (a DOI number is preferred, if available).

Note: Date of access is not required by the Chicago standard, however, your lecturer or publisher may request it.

Examples, using a DOI:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    4. Damiano Canale, "Looking for the Nature of Law: On Shapiro’s Challenge," Law and Philosophy 31, no. 4 (2012): 409-11, doi:10.1007/s10982-011-9125-y.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    8. Canale, "Nature of Law," 412.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Canale, Damiano. "Looking for the Nature of Law: On Shapiro’s Challenge." Law and Philosophy 31, no. 4 (2012): 409-41. doi:10.1007/s10982-011-9125-y.

Examples, using a URL:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    4. Lawrence A. Shapiro, "Multiple Realizations," Journal of Philosophy 97, no. 12 (2000): 23, accessed June 27, 2006, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2678460.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    9. Shapiro, "Multiple Realizations," 24.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Shapiro, Lawrence A. "Multiple Realizations." Journal of Philosophy 97, no. 12 (2000): 21-24. Accessed June 27, 2006. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2678460.

Microformats

Treat microform and microfilm as books. Include the format details after the publication details, and include reel number or fiche number where appropriate.

The reader needs to know: author, title, place of publication, publisher, year of publication, reel/film/fiche number.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    2. William Wilberforce, Papers of William Wilberforce (1759-1833) and related slavery and anti-slavery materials from Wilberforce House, Hull (Oxford: Adam Matthews Publications, 2000), microfilm, series 1, part 1, reel 14.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    9. Wilberforce, Papers, series 1, part 1, reel 15.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Wilberforce, William. Papers of William Wilberforce (1759-1833) and related slavery and anti-slavery materials from Wilberforce House, Hull. Oxford: Adam Matthews Publications, 2000. Microfilm.

Music and spoken word recordings

The reader needs to know: composer (or writer, or performer, or other person primarily responsible for the recording), title, recording date, name of the recording company or publisher, recording catalogue code, year of publication, format (eg compact disc), URL (if found online).

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    3. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, String Quartets Nos. 14-19, Performed by Alban Berg Quartet, Warner Music France, WM4078, 2002, compact disc.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    6. Mozart, String Quartets.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. String Quartets Nos. 14-19. Performed by Alban Berg Quartet. Warner Music France, WM4078, 2002, compact disc. 

Musical scores

Published musical scores should be treated like a book, with the composer and title of the composition followed by publication details.

The reader needs to know: composer, title, editors, place of publication, publisher, year of publication.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    14. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Sonatas and Fantasies for the Piano, prepared from the autographs and earliest printed sources by Nathan Broder. Rev. ed. Bryn Mawr (Pennsylvania: Theodore Presser, 1960).
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    21. Mozart, Sonatas and Fantasies.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Sonatas and Fantasies for the Piano. Prepared from the autographs and earliest printed sources by Nathan Broder. Rev. ed. Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania: Theodore Presser, 1960.

Newspapers

It is normally sufficient to include newspaper and magazine articles in notes. If you need to include a reference to a newspaper article in the bibliography, the year of publication is separated from the month and day (if any). If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.

The reader needs to know: author (if known), "title of article," name of newspaper, month, day and year. For electronic newspapers include the URL.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    4. Daniel Mendelsohn, "But Enough about Me," New Yorker, January 25, 2010.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    9. Mendelsohn, "But Enough about Me."
  • Bibliographic entry
    Mendelsohn, Daniel. "But Enough about Me." New Yorker, January 25, 2010.

Official publications: Command and departmental papers

The reader needs to know: name of country or state, name of committee, department or Royal Commission, title, volume details and command number if available, year of publication, URL (if paper is online).

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    2. United Kingdom, Parliament, Report of the Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance, Vol. 2, Appendices, Cmd 2687 (London: The Stationary Office, 1926).
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    5. Parliament, Report Royal Commission, 1926.
  • Bibliographic entry
    United Kingdom. Parliament. Report of the Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance. Vol. 2. Appendices. Cmd 2687. London: The Stationary Office, 1926.

Personal communications

It is only necessary to include personal communications - such as conversations, letters and e-mail messages - in notes rather than in the formal bibliography.

Letter, e-mail

The reader needs to know: author, recipient of message (usually the author), date that the message was sent.

Example:

  • Note
    4. Ian McEwan, e-mail message to the author, November 15, 2008.
  • Repeated reference
    12. McEwan, e-mail to author.

Interview

The reader needs to know: interviewee, name of interviewer (usually the author), place and date that the interview took place (if known).

Example:

  • Note
    4. Andrew Macmillan, interview by author, San Diego, CA, March 2, 2007.
  • Repeated reference
    22. Macmillan, interview by author.

Reviews

The reader needs to know: reviewer's name, "title of review," review of title of work being reviewed, author(s)/artist(s), source of the review followed by publication details, page numbers (or URL).

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    3. Allan Gibbard, "Morality in Living: Korsgaard's Kantian Lectures," review of The Sources of Normativity, by Christine M. Korsgaard, Ethics 110, no. 1 (1999): 140-64.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if a repeated reference
    9. Gibbard, "Morality in Living," 152.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Gibbard, Allan. "Morality in Living: Korsgaard's Kantain Lectures." Review of The Sources of Normativity, by Christine M. Korsgaard. Ethics 110, no.1 (1999): 140-64.

Television or radio programmes - broadcasts

These are only cited in notes, not in the bibliography.

The reader needs to know: name of programme or series, "name of episode," number of episode, television channel, date broadcast, URL if accessed online and date accessed.

Example:

  • Note
    1. Big Ideas that Changed the World, "Feminism," episode 2, narrated by Germaine Greer, Channel 5, June 7, 2005.
  • Repeated reference
    8. Big Ideas that Changed the World, 2005.

Theses, dissertations, student projects

The reader needs to know: author,"title," type of project (eg MA thesis, dissertation, etc), institution, date.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    14. Tim Bowly, "Bristol's Trading Networks with Ireland in the Later Middle Ages" (MA thesis, University of the West of England, 2005), 35.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if repeated reference
    16. Bowly, "Bristol's Trading Networks," 28.
  • Bibliographic entry
    Bowly, Tim. "Bristol's Trading Networks with Ireland in the Later Middle Ages." MA thesis, University of the West of England, 2005.

Websites

Websites may not be titled or dated, and may be anonymous, but you should include this information where it is available.

The reader needs to know: creator of information (if available), "title of web page," title of website (if available), date accessed or date page last modified, URL.

Examples:

  • Note (without bibliography)
    1. Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, "Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000-2010: A Decade of Outreach," Evanston Public Library, accessed June 1, 2005, http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html.
  • Note (with bibliography), or if repeated reference
    4. Evanston Public Library, "Evanston Strategic Plan."
  • Bibliographic entry
    Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. "Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000-2010: A Decade of Outreach." Evanston Public Library. Accessed June 1, 2005.  http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html.

 

Official Chicago guides

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